# Solution: 2019-21 Approximate isometry

Let $$A$$ be an $$m \times n$$ matrix and $$\delta \in (0, 1)$$. Suppose that $$\| A^T A – I \| \leq \delta$$. Prove that all singular values of $$A$$ are contained in the interval $$(1-\delta, 1+\delta)$$.

The best solution was submitted by 고성훈 (수리과학과 2018학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-21.

A similar solution was submitted by 김태균 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3). Incomplete solutions was submitted by 박재원 (2019학번, +2), 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +2).

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# Solution: 2019-19 Balancing consecutive squares

Find all integers $$n$$ such that the following holds:

There exists a set of $$2n$$ consecutive squares $$S = \{ (m+1)^2, (m+2)^2, \dots, (m+2n)^2 \}$$ ($$m$$ is a nonnegative integer) such that $$S = A \cup B$$ for some $$A$$ and $$B$$ with $$|A| = |B| = n$$ and the sum of elements in $$A$$ is equal to the sum of elements in $$B$$.

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-19.

An incorrect solution was submitted.

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# Solution: 2019-17 0.7?

Let $$n \in \mathbb{Z}^+$$ and $$x, y \in \mathbb{R}^+$$ such that $$x^n + y^n = 1$$. Prove that
$(1-x)(1-y) \left( \sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1+x^{2k}}{1+x^{4k}} \right) \left( \sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1+y^{2k}}{1+y^{4k}} \right) < \frac{7}{10}.$

The best solution was submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-17.

Another solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3).

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# Solution: 2019-16 Groups with abundant quotients

Suppose a group $$G$$ has a finite index subgroup that maps onto the free group of rank 2. Show that every countable group can be embedded in one of the quotient groups of $$G$$.

The best solution was submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-16.

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# Solution: 2019-15 Singular matrix

Let $$A, B$$ be $$n \times n$$ Hermitian matrices. Find all positive integer $$n$$ such that the following statement holds:

“If $$AB – BA$$ is singular, then $$A$$ and $$B$$ have a common eigenvector.”

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-14.

A similar solution was submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3). Late solutions are not graded.

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# Solution: 2019-14 Residual finite groups

A group $$G$$ is called residually finite if for any nontrivial element $$g$$ of $$G$$, there exists a finite group $$K$$ and a surjective homomorphism $$\rho: G \to K$$ such that $$\rho(g)$$ is a nontrivial element of $$K$$.

Suppose $$G$$ is a finitely generated residually finite group. Show that any surjective homomorphism from $$G$$ to itself is an isomorphism.

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-14.

Other solutions were submitted by 김동률 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 김태균 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3).

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# Solution: 2019-12 Groups generated by two homeomorphisms of the real line

Let $$I, J$$ be connected open intervals such that $$I \cap J$$ is a nonempty proper sub-interval of both $$I$$ and$$J$$. For instance, $$I = (0, 2)$$ and $$J = (1, 3)$$ form an example.

Let $$f$$ ($$g$$, resp.) be an orientation-preserving homeomorphism of the real line $$\mathbb{R}$$ such that the set of points of $$\mathbb{R}$$ which are not fixed by $$f$$ ($$g$$, resp.) is precisely $$I$$ ($$J$$, resp.).

Show that for large enough integer $$n$$, the group generated by $$f^n, g^n$$ is isomorphic to the group with the following presentation

$<a, b | [ab^{-1}, a^{-1}ba] = [ab^{-1}, a^{-2}ba^2] = id>.$

The best solution was submitted by 김동률 (수리과학과 2015학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-12.

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# Solution: 2019-13 Property R

Let $$A_{a, b} = \{ (x, y) \in \mathbb{Z}^2 : 1 \leq x \leq a, 1 \leq y \leq b \}$$. Consider the following property, which we call Property R:

“If each of the points in $$A$$ is colored red, blue, or yellow, then there is a rectangle whose sides are parallel to the axes and vertices have the same color.”

Find the maximum of $$|A_{a, b}|$$ such that $$A_{a, b}$$ has Property R but $$A_{a-1, b}$$ and $$A_{a, b-1}$$ do not.

The best solution was submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-13.

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# Solution: 2019-11 Smallest prime

Find the smallest prime number $$p \geq 5$$ such that there exist no integer coefficient polynomials $$f$$ and $$g$$ satisfying
$p | ( 2^{f(n)} + 3^{g(n)})$
for all positive integers $$n$$.

The best solution was submitted by 김태균 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-11.

Other solutions were submitted by 고성훈 (2018학번, +3), 조재형 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 최백규 (생명과학과 2016학번, +3).

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Let $$G$$ be a group. A topology on $$G$$ is said to be a group topology if the map $$\mu: G \times G \to G$$ defined by $$\mu(g, h) = g^{-1}h$$ is continuous with respect to this topology where $$G \times G$$ is equipped with the product topology. A group equipped with a group topology is called a topological group. When we have two topologies $$T_1, T_2$$ on a set S, we write $$T_1 \leq T_2$$ if $$T_2$$ is finer than $$T_1$$, which gives a partial order on the set of topologies on a given set. Prove or disprove the following statement: for a give group $$G$$, there exists a unique minimal group topology on $$G$$ (minimal with respect to the partial order we described above) so that $$G$$ is a Hausdorff space?