Category Archives: solution

Solution: 2021-06 A nondecreasing subsequence

Let \(\mathcal{A}_n\) be the collection of all sequences \( \mathbf{a}= (a_1,\dots, a_n) \) with \(a_i \in [i]\) for all \(i\in [n]=\{1,2,\dots, n\}\). A nondecreasing \(k\)-subsequence of \(\mathbf{a}\) is a subsequence \( (a_{i_1}, a_{i_2},\dots, a_{i_k}) \) such that \(i_1< i_2< \dots < i_k\) and \(a_{i_1}\leq a_{i_2}\leq \dots \leq a_{i_k}\). For given \(k\), determine the smallest \(n\) such that any sequence \(\mathbf{a}\in \mathcal{A}_n\) has a nondecreasing \(k\)-subsequence.

The best solution was submitted by 고성훈 (수리과학과 2018학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2021-06.

Another solution was submitted by 강한필 (전산학부 2016학번, +3).

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Solution: 2021-05 Finite generation of a group

Prove or disprove that if all elements of an infinite group G has order less than n for some positive integer n, then G is finitely generated.

The best solution was submitted by 김기수 (수리과학과 2018학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2021-05.

Other solutions were submitted by 강한필 (전산학부 2016학번, +3), 고성훈 (수리과학과 2018학번, +3), Late solutions are not graded.

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Solution: 2021-04 Product of matrices

For an \( n \times n \) matrix \( M \) with real eigenvalues, let \( \lambda(M) \) be the largest eigenvalue of \( M\). Prove that for any positive integer \( r \) and positive semidefinite matrices \( A, B \),

\[[\lambda(A^m B^m)]^{1/m} \leq [\lambda(A^{m+1} B^{m+1})]^{1/(m+1)}.\]

The best solution was submitted by 고성훈 (수리과학과 2018학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2021-04.

Another solutions was submitted by 김건우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3),

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Solution: 2021-02 Inscribed triangles

Show that for any triangle T and any Jordan curve C in the Euclidean plane, there exists a triangle inscribed in C which is similar to T.

The best solution was submitted by 강한필 (전산학부 2016학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2021-02.

Other solutions was submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 박은아 (수리과학과 2015학번, +2).

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Solution: 2021-01 Single-digit number

Prove that for any given positive integer \( n \), there exists a sequence of the following operations that transforms \( n \) to a single-digit number (in decimal representation).

1) multiply a given positive integer by any positive integer.

2) remove all zeros in the decimal representation of a given positive integer.

The best solution was submitted by 강한필 (전산학부 2016학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2021-01.

Other solutions was submitted by 김기수 (수리과학과 2018학번), 박은아 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 전해구 (기계공학과 졸업생).

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Solution: 2020-24 Divisions of Fibonacci numbers and their remainders

For each \( i \in \mathbb{N}\), let \(F_i\) be the \(i\)-th Fibonacci number where \(F_0=0, F_1=1\) and \(F_{i+1}=F_{i}+F_{i-1}\) for each \(i\geq 1\).
For \(n>m\), we divide \(F_n\) by \(F_m\) to obtain the remainder \(R\). Prove that either \(R\) or \(F_m-R\) is a Fibonacci number.

The best solution was submitted by 고성훈 (수리과학과 2018학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2020-24.

Other solutions was submitted by Abdirakhman Ismail (2020학번), 이준호 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3).

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Solution: 2020-22 Regular simplex

Let \( S \) be the unit sphere in \( \mathbb{R}^n \), centered at the origin, and \( P_1 P_2 \dots P_{n+1} \) a regular simplex inscribed in \( S \). Prove that for a point \( P \) inside \( S \),
\[
\sum_{i=1}^{n+1} (PP_i)^4
\]
depends only on the distance \( OP \) (and \(n\)).

The best solution was submitted by 이준호 (수리과학과 2016학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2020-22.

Other solutions was submitted by 고성훈 (수리과학과 2018학번, +3), 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3).

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Solution: 2020-19 Continuous functions

Let \( n \) be a positive integer. Determine all continuous functions \(f: [0, 1] \to \mathbb{R}\) such that
\[
f(x_1) + \dots + f(x_n) =1
\]
for all \( x_1, \dots, x_n \in [0, 1] \) satisfying \( x_1 + \dots + x_n = 1\).

The best solution was submitted by 김유일 (2020학번) Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2020-19.

Other solutions was submitted by 길현준 (수리과학과 2018학번, +3), 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 이준호 (수리과학과 2016학번, +2).

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Solution: 2020-18 A way of shuffling cards

Consider the cards with labels \( 1,\dots, n \) in some order. If the top card has label \(m \), we reverse the order of the top \( m \) cards. The process stops only when the card with label \( 1\) is on the top. Prove that the process must stop in at most \( (1.7)^n \) steps.

The best solution was submitted by 길현준 (수리과학과 2018학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2020-18.

Other solutions was submitted by 김유일 (2020학번, +3), 이준호 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3).

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