Monthly Archives: May 2016

Solution: 2016-10 Factorization

Suppose that \( A \) is an \( n \times n \) matrix with integer entries and \( \det A = p_1^{e_1} p_2^{e_2} \dots p_k^{e_k} \) for primes \( p_1, p_2, \dots, p_k \) and positive integers \( e_1, e_2, \dots, e_k \). Prove that there exist \( n \times n \) matrices \( B_1, B_2, \dots, B_k \) with integer entries such that \( A = B_1 B_2 \dots B_k \) and \( \det B_1 = p_1^{e_1}, \det B_2 = p_2^{e_2}, \dots, \det B_k = p_k^{e_k} \).

The best solution was submitted by Lee, Sangmin (이상민, 수리과학과 2014학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2016-10.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 국윤범 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 장기정 (수리과학과 2014학번, +2), 박정우 (한국과학영재학교 2016학번, +2).

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2016-11 Infinite series

For a positive integer \( n \), define \( f(n) \) by
\[
f(n) =
\begin{cases}
0 & \text{ if } n \equiv 0 \pmod{5} \\
1 & \text{ if } n \equiv \pm 1 \pmod{5} \\
-1 & \text{ if } n \equiv \pm 2 \pmod{5}
\end{cases}.
\]
Compute the infinite series
\[
\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{f(n)}{n} = 1 – \frac{1}{2} – \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{4} + \frac{1}{6} – \dots.
\]

(This is the last problem of this semester. Thank you.)

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Solution: 2016-9 Determinant of a matrix

Let \( A=(a_{ij})_{ij}\) be an \(n\times n\) matrix, where \[ a_{ij}=\begin{cases} 3 &\text{if }i=j,\\ (-1)^{\lvert i-j\rvert}&\text{otherwise.}\end{cases}\] Compute the determinant of \(A\).

The best solution was submitted by Jang, Kijoung (장기정, 수리과학과 2014학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2016-9.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 강한필 (2016학번, +3), 국윤범 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 김태균 (2016학번, +3), 박정우 (한국과학영재학교 2016학번, +3), 송교범 (서대전고등학교 3학년, +3), 이상민 (수리과학과 2014학번, +3), 이원웅 (건국대 수학과 2014학번, +3), 최백규 (2016학번, +3), 유찬진 (수리과학과 2015학번, +2), 윤준기 (전기및전자공학부 2014학번, +2).

 

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2016-10 Factorization

Suppose that \( A \) is an \( n \times n \) matrix with integer entries and \( \det A = p_1^{e_1} p_2^{e_2} \dots p_k^{e_k} \) for primes \( p_1, p_2, \dots, p_k \) and positive integers \( e_1, e_2, \dots, e_k \). Prove that there exist \( n \times n \) matrices \( B_1, B_2, \dots, B_k \) with integer entries such that \( A = B_1 B_2 \dots B_k \) and \( \det B_1 = p_1^{e_1}, \det B_2 = p_2^{e_2}, \dots, \det B_k = p_k^{e_k} \).

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Solution: 2016-8 Limit

Compute \[ \lim_{n\to \infty} \cos^{2016} (\pi\sqrt{n^2+4n+9}).\]

The best solution was submitted by Kang, Hanpil (강한필), 2016학번. Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2016-8.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 국윤범 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 이준호 (2016학번, +3), 장기정 (수리과학과 2014학번, +3), 유찬진 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 배형진 (마포고등학교 2학년, +3), 박기연 (2016학번, +3), 유현우 (한양대학교 화학공학과 2013학번, +3), 윤준기 (전기및전자공학부 2014학번, +3), 김재현 (2016학번, +3), 이예찬 (오송고등학교 교사, +3), 최백규 (2016학번, +3), 장창환 (기계공학과 2015학번, +3), 한대진 (인천예일중학교 교사, +3), 박은구 (연세대 수학과 대학원생, +3), 김태균 (2016학번, +3), 박정우 (한국과학영재학교 2016학번, +3), 이원웅 (건국대 수학과 2014학번, +3), 이상민 (수리과학과 2014학번, +3).

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Solution: 2016-7 Sum-free

For a set \( A \subset \mathbb{R} \), let \( f(A) \) be the size of the largest set \( B \subset A \) such that \( (B+B) \cap B = \emptyset \). For a positive integer \( n \), let \( f(n) = \min_{0 \notin A, |A|=n} f(A) \). Prove that \( f(n) \geq n/3 \).

The best solution was submitted by Kook, Yun Bum (국윤범, 수리과학과 2015학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2016-7.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 이종원 (수리과학과 2014학번, +3), 장기정 (수리과학과 2014학번, +3).

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Solution: 2016-5 Partition into 4 sets

Let \(A_1,A_2,\ldots,A_n\) be subsets of \(\{1,2,\ldots,n\}\) such that \(i\notin A_i\) for all \(i\). Prove that there exist four sets \(C_1,C_2,C_3,C_4\) such that \(C_1\cup C_2\cup C_3\cup C_4=\{1,2,\ldots,n\} \) and for all \(i\) and \(j\), if \(i\in C_j\), then \( \lvert A_i\cap C_j\rvert \le \frac12 \lvert A_i\rvert\).

The best solution was submitted by Kook, Yun Bum (국윤범, 수리과학과 2015학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2016-5.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 이준호 (2016학번, +2), 김경석 (연세대학교 의예과 2016학번, +2). An incorrect solution was received.

Note: There is a simpler solution.

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