Category Archives: problem

2021-12 A graduation ceremony

In a graduation ceremony, \(n\) graduating students form a circle and their diplomas are distributed uniformly at random. Students who have their own diploma leave, and each of the remaining students passes the diploma she has to the student on her right, and this is one round. Again, each student with her own diploma leave and each of the remaining students passes the diploma to the student on her right and repeat this until everyone leaves. What is the probability that this process takes exactly \(k \) rounds until everyone leaves.

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2021-10 Integral inequality

Let \( f: [0, 1] \to \mathbb{R} \) be a continuous function satisfying
\[
\int_x^1 f(t) dt \geq \int_x^1 t\, dt
\]
for all \( x \in [0, 1] \). Prove that
\[
\int_0^1 [f(t)]^2 dt \geq \int_0^1 t f(t) dt.
\]

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2021-09 Monochromatic solution of an equation

For given \(k\in \mathbb{N}\), determine the minimum natural number \(n\) satisfying the following: no matter how one colors each number in \(\{1,2,\dots, n\}\) red or blue, there always exists (not necessarily distinct) numbers \(x_0, x_1,\dots, x_k \in [n]\) with the same color satisfying \(x_1+\dots + x_k = x_0\).

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2021-08 Self-antipodal sets on the sphere

Prove or disprove that if C is any nonempty connected, closed, self-antipodal (ie., invariant under the antipodal map) set on \(S^2\), then it equals the zero locus of an odd, smooth function \(f:S^2 -> \mathbb{R}\).  

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2021-07 Odd determinant

Let \( A_N \) be an \( N \times N \) matrix whose entries are i.i.d. Bernoulli random variables with probability \( 1/2 \), i.e.,

\[\mathbb{P}( (A_N)_{ij} =0) = \mathbb{P}( (A_N)_{ij} =1) = \frac{1}{2}.\]

Let \( p_N \) be the probability that \( \det A_N \) is odd. Find \( \lim_{N \to \infty} p_N \).

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2021-06 A nondecreasing subsequence

Let \(\mathcal{A}_n\) be the collection of all sequences \( \mathbf{a}= (a_1,\dots, a_n) \) with \(a_i \in [i]\) for all \(i\in [n]=\{1,2,\dots, n\}\). A nondecreasing \(k\)-subsequence of \(\mathbf{a}\) is a subsequence \( (a_{i_1}, a_{i_2},\dots, a_{i_k}) \) such that \(i_1< i_2< \dots < i_k\) and \(a_{i_1}\leq a_{i_2}\leq \dots \leq a_{i_k}\). For given \(k\), determine the smallest \(n\) such that any sequence \(\mathbf{a}\in \mathcal{A}_n\) has a nondecreasing \(k\)-subsequence.

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Solution: 2021-03 A placement of rooks on a chessboard

Consider an \(n\) by \(n\) chessboard with white/black squares alternating on every row and every column. In how many ways can one choose \(k\) white squares and \(n-k\) black squares from this chessboard with no two squares in a row or column.

The best solution was submitted by 강한필 (전산학부 2016학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2021-03.

Other solutions was submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 고성훈 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 전해구 (기계공학과 졸업생, +3).

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