# 2019-16 Groups with abundant quotients

Suppose a group $$G$$ has a finite index subgroup that maps onto the free group of rank 2. Show that every countable group can be embedded in one of the quotient groups of $$G$$.

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# 2019-15 Singular matrix

Let $$A, B$$ be $$n \times n$$ Hermitian matrices. Find all positive integer $$n$$ such that the following statement holds:

“If $$AB – BA$$ is singular, then $$A$$ and $$B$$ have a common eigenvector.”

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# 2019-14 Residual finite groups

A group $$G$$ is called residually finite if for any nontrivial element $$g$$ of $$G$$, there exists a finite group $$K$$ and a surjective homomorphism $$\rho: G \to K$$ such that $$\rho(g)$$ is a nontrivial element of $$K$$.

Suppose $$G$$ is a finitely generated residually finite group. Show that any surjective homomorphism from $$G$$ to itself is an isomorphism.

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# Notice on POW 2019-12

POW 2019-12 is still open and anyone who first submits a correct solution will get the full credit.

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# 2019-13 Property R

Let $$A_{a, b} = \{ (x, y) \in \mathbb{Z}^2 : 1 \leq x \leq a, 1 \leq y \leq b \}$$. Consider the following property, which we call Property R:

“If each of the points in $$A$$ is colored red, blue, or yellow, then there is a rectangle whose sides are parallel to the axes and vertices have the same color.”

Find the maximum of $$|A_{a, b}|$$ such that $$A_{a, b}$$ has Property R but $$A_{a-1, b}$$ and $$A_{a, b-1}$$ do not.

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# Notices

1. There will be no POW this week due to 추석 (thanksgiving) break. POW will resume next week.

2. The submission due for POW2019-12 is extended to Sep. 18 (Wed.).

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# 2019-12 Groups generated by two homeomorphisms of the real line

Let $$I, J$$ be connected open intervals such that $$I \cap J$$ is a nonempty proper sub-interval of both $$I$$ and$$J$$. For instance, $$I = (0, 2)$$ and $$J = (1, 3)$$ form an example.

Let $$f$$ ($$g$$, resp.) be an orientation-preserving homeomorphism of the real line $$\mathbb{R}$$ such that the set of points of $$\mathbb{R}$$ which are not fixed by $$f$$ ($$g$$, resp.) is precisely $$I$$ ($$J$$, resp.).

Show that for large enough integer $$n$$, the group generated by $$f^n, g^n$$ is isomorphic to the group with the following presentation

$<a, b | [ab^{-1}, a^{-1}ba] = [ab^{-1}, a^{-2}ba^2] = id>.$

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# 2019-11 Smallest prime

Find the smallest prime number $$p \geq 5$$ such that there exist no integer coefficient polynomials $$f$$ and $$g$$ satisfying
$p | ( 2^{f(n)} + 3^{g(n)})$
for all positive integers $$n$$.

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# Extension of the due date for 10th problem

For the 10th problem for POW this year, I added a condition that we only consider the group topologies which make the given group a Hausdorff space. Since the problem has been modified, I decided to extend the deadline for this problem. Please hand in your solution by 12pm on Friday (May 31st).

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Let $$G$$ be a group. A topology on $$G$$ is said to be a group topology if the map $$\mu: G \times G \to G$$ defined by $$\mu(g, h) = g^{-1}h$$ is continuous with respect to this topology where $$G \times G$$ is equipped with the product topology. A group equipped with a group topology is called a topological group. When we have two topologies $$T_1, T_2$$ on a set S, we write $$T_1 \leq T_2$$ if $$T_2$$ is finer than $$T_1$$, which gives a partial order on the set of topologies on a given set. Prove or disprove the following statement: for a give group $$G$$, there exists a unique minimal group topology on $$G$$ (minimal with respect to the partial order we described above) so that $$G$$ is a Hausdorff space?