Suppose a group \(G\) has a finite index subgroup that maps onto the free group of rank 2. Show that every countable group can be embedded in one of the quotient groups of \(G\).

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Suppose a group \(G\) has a finite index subgroup that maps onto the free group of rank 2. Show that every countable group can be embedded in one of the quotient groups of \(G\).

Let \( A, B \) be \( n \times n \) Hermitian matrices. Find all positive integer \( n \) such that the following statement holds:

“If \( AB – BA \) is singular, then \( A \) and \( B \) have a common eigenvector.”

A group \(G\) is called residually finite if for any nontrivial element \(g\) of \(G\), there exists a finite group \(K\) and a surjective homomorphism \(\rho: G \to K\) such that \(\rho(g)\) is a nontrivial element of \(K\).

Suppose \(G\) is a finitely generated residually finite group. Show that any surjective homomorphism from \(G\) to itself is an isomorphism.

POW 2019-12 is still open and anyone who first submits a correct solution will get the full credit.

Let \( A_{a, b} = \{ (x, y) \in \mathbb{Z}^2 : 1 \leq x \leq a, 1 \leq y \leq b \} \). Consider the following property, which we call Property R:

“If each of the points in \(A\) is colored red, blue, or yellow, then there is a rectangle whose sides are parallel to the axes and vertices have the same color.”

Find the maximum of \(|A_{a, b}|\) such that \( A_{a, b} \) has Property R but \( A_{a-1, b} \) and \( A_{a, b-1} \) do not.

1. There will be no POW this week due to 추석 (thanksgiving) break. POW will resume next week.

2. The submission due for POW2019-12 is extended to Sep. 18 (Wed.).

Let \(I, J\) be connected open intervals such that \(I \cap J\) is a nonempty proper sub-interval of both \(I\) and\(J\). For instance, \(I = (0, 2)\) and \(J = (1, 3)\) form an example.

Let \(f\) (\(g\), resp.) be an orientation-preserving homeomorphism of the real line \(\mathbb{R}\) such that the set of points of \(\mathbb{R}\) which are not fixed by \(f\) (\(g\), resp.) is precisely \(I\) (\(J\), resp.).

Show that for large enough integer \(n\), the group generated by \(f^n, g^n\) is isomorphic to the group with the following presentation

\[ <a, b | [ab^{-1}, a^{-1}ba] = [ab^{-1}, a^{-2}ba^2] = id>. \]

Find the smallest prime number \( p \geq 5 \) such that there exist no integer coefficient polynomials \( f \) and \( g \) satisfying

\[

p | ( 2^{f(n)} + 3^{g(n)})

\]

for all positive integers \( n \).

For the 10th problem for POW this year, I added a condition that we only consider the group topologies which make the given group a Hausdorff space. Since the problem has been modified, I decided to extend the deadline for this problem. Please hand in your solution by 12pm on Friday (May 31st).

Let \(G\) be a group. A topology on \(G\) is said to be a group topology if the map \(\mu: G \times G \to G\) defined by \(\mu(g, h) = g^{-1}h\) is continuous with respect to this topology where \(G \times G\) is equipped with the product topology. A group equipped with a group topology is called a topological group. When we have two topologies \(T_1, T_2\) on a set S, we write \(T_1 \leq T_2\) if \(T_2\) is finer than \(T_1\), which gives a partial order on the set of topologies on a given set. Prove or disprove the following statement: for a give group \(G\), there exists a unique minimal group topology on \(G\) (minimal with respect to the partial order we described above) so that \(G\) is a Hausdorff space?