Let \(A\) be an 8 by 8 integral unimodular matrix. Moreover, assume that for each \( x \in \mathbb{Z}^8 \), we have \(x^{\top} A x \) is even. What is the possible number of positive eigenvalues for \(A\)?

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Let \(A\) be an 8 by 8 integral unimodular matrix. Moreover, assume that for each \( x \in \mathbb{Z}^8 \), we have \(x^{\top} A x \) is even. What is the possible number of positive eigenvalues for \(A\)?

Let \(\varphi(x)\) be the Euler’s totient function. Let \(S = \{a_1,\dots, a_n\}\) be a set of positive integers such that for any \(a_i\), all of its positive divisors are also in \(S\). Let \(A\) be the matrix with entries \(A_{i,j} = gcd(a_i,a_j)\) being the greatest common divisors of \(a_i\) and \(a_j\). Prove that \(\det(A) = \prod_{i=1}^{n} \varphi(a_i)\).

The best solution was submitted by Noitnetta Yobepyh (Snaejwen High School, +4). Congratulations!

Here is the best solution of problem 2022-21.

Other solutions were submitted by 기영인 (KAIST 22학번, +3), 여인영 (KAIST 물리학과 20학번, +3), 채지석 (KAIST 수리과학과 석박통합과정, +3), 전해구 (KAIST 기계공학과 졸업생, +2), 최예준 (서울과기대 행정학과 21학번, +2).

Define a sequence \( a_n \) by \( a_1 = 1 \) and

\[

a_{n+1} = \frac{1}{n} \left( 1 + \sum_{k=1}^n a_k^2 \right)

\]

for any \( n \geq 1 \). Prove or disprove that \( a_n \) is an integer for all \( n \geq 1 \).

POW 2022-20 is still open. Anyone who first submits a correct solution will get the full credit.

Let \(\varphi(x)\) be the Euler’s totient function. Let \(S = \{a_1,\dots, a_n\}\) be a set of positive integers such that for any \(a_i\), all of its positive divisors are also in \(S\). Let \(A\) be the matrix with entries \(A_{i,j} = gcd(a_i,a_j)\) being the greatest common divisors of \(a_i\) and \(a_j\). Prove that \(\det(A) = \prod_{i=1}^{n} \varphi(a_i)\).

Let \( f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R} \) be a twice differentiable function satisfying \( f(0) = 0 \) and \( 0 \leq f'(x) \leq 1 \). Prove that

\[ \left( \int_0^1 f(x) dx \right)^2 \geq \int_0^1 [f(x)]^3 dx. \]

The best solution was submitted by 기영인 (KAIST 22학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is the best solution of problem 2022-19.

Other solutions were submitted by 여인영 (KAIST 물리학과 20학번, +3), Kawano Ren (Kaisei Senior High School, +3), 최예준 (서울과기대 행정학과 21학번, +3), 김준성 (KAIST 물리학과 박사과정, +3).

Let \(S\) be the set of all 4 by 4 integral positive-definite symmetric unimodular matrices. Define an equivalence relation \( \sim \) on \(S\) such that for any \( A,B \in S\), we have \(A \sim B\) if and only if \(PAP^\top = B\) for some integral unimodular matrix \(P\). Determine \(S ~/\sim \).