Suppose a group \(G\) has a finite index subgroup that maps onto the free group of rank 2. Show that every countable group can be embedded in one of the quotient groups of \(G\).

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Suppose a group \(G\) has a finite index subgroup that maps onto the free group of rank 2. Show that every countable group can be embedded in one of the quotient groups of \(G\).

Let \( A, B \) be \( n \times n \) Hermitian matrices. Find all positive integer \( n \) such that the following statement holds:

“If \( AB – BA \) is singular, then \( A \) and \( B \) have a common eigenvector.”

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-14.

A similar solution was submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3). Late solutions are not graded.

Let \( A, B \) be \( n \times n \) Hermitian matrices. Find all positive integer \( n \) such that the following statement holds:

“If \( AB – BA \) is singular, then \( A \) and \( B \) have a common eigenvector.”

A group \(G\) is called residually finite if for any nontrivial element \(g\) of \(G\), there exists a finite group \(K\) and a surjective homomorphism \(\rho: G \to K\) such that \(\rho(g)\) is a nontrivial element of \(K\).

Suppose \(G\) is a finitely generated residually finite group. Show that any surjective homomorphism from \(G\) to itself is an isomorphism.

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-14.

Other solutions were submitted by 김동률 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 김태균 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3).

A group \(G\) is called residually finite if for any nontrivial element \(g\) of \(G\), there exists a finite group \(K\) and a surjective homomorphism \(\rho: G \to K\) such that \(\rho(g)\) is a nontrivial element of \(K\).

Suppose \(G\) is a finitely generated residually finite group. Show that any surjective homomorphism from \(G\) to itself is an isomorphism.

Let \(I, J\) be connected open intervals such that \(I \cap J\) is a nonempty proper sub-interval of both \(I\) and\(J\). For instance, \(I = (0, 2)\) and \(J = (1, 3)\) form an example.

Let \(f\) (\(g\), resp.) be an orientation-preserving homeomorphism of the real line \(\mathbb{R}\) such that the set of points of \(\mathbb{R}\) which are not fixed by \(f\) (\(g\), resp.) is precisely \(I\) (\(J\), resp.).

Show that for large enough integer \(n\), the group generated by \(f^n, g^n\) is isomorphic to the group with the following presentation

\[ <a, b | [ab^{-1}, a^{-1}ba] = [ab^{-1}, a^{-2}ba^2] = id>. \]

The best solution was submitted by 김동률 (수리과학과 2015학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-12.

POW 2019-12 is still open and anyone who first submits a correct solution will get the full credit.

Let \( A_{a, b} = \{ (x, y) \in \mathbb{Z}^2 : 1 \leq x \leq a, 1 \leq y \leq b \} \). Consider the following property, which we call Property R:

“If each of the points in \(A\) is colored red, blue, or yellow, then there is a rectangle whose sides are parallel to the axes and vertices have the same color.”

Find the maximum of \(|A_{a, b}|\) such that \( A_{a, b} \) has Property R but \( A_{a-1, b} \) and \( A_{a, b-1} \) do not.

The best solution was submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-13.

An incorrect solution was received. Late solutions are not graded.

Let \( A_{a, b} = \{ (x, y) \in \mathbb{Z}^2 : 1 \leq x \leq a, 1 \leq y \leq b \} \). Consider the following property, which we call Property R:

“If each of the points in \(A\) is colored red, blue, or yellow, then there is a rectangle whose sides are parallel to the axes and vertices have the same color.”

Find the maximum of \(|A_{a, b}|\) such that \( A_{a, b} \) has Property R but \( A_{a-1, b} \) and \( A_{a, b-1} \) do not.

1. There will be no POW this week due to 추석 (thanksgiving) break. POW will resume next week.

2. The submission due for POW2019-12 is extended to Sep. 18 (Wed.).