Notice on 2021-21

The problem on 2021-21 was written in an ambiguous way, which led the contestants to misunderstand the problem. The problem is updated to be more clear, and anyone is again welcome to submit a solution for the problem.

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Solution: 2021-22 Sum of fractions

Determine all rational numbers that can be written as
\[
\frac{1}{n_1} + \frac{1}{n_1 n_2} + \frac{1}{n_1 n_2 n_3} + \dots + \frac{1}{n_1 n_2 n_3 \dots n_k} ,
\]
where \( n_1, n_2, n_3 \dots, n_k \) are positive integers greater than \(1\).

The best solution was submitted by 조정휘 (수리과학과 대학원생, +4). Congratulations!

Here is the best solution of problem 2021-22.

Other solutions were submitted by 신주홍 (수리과학과 2020학번, +3), 이재옥 (전기및전자공학부 2018학번, +3), 이호빈 (수리과학과 대학원생, +3), 전해구 (기계공학과 졸업생, +3).

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2021-21 Different unions

Let \(F\) be a family of nonempty subsets of \([n]=\{1,\dots,n\}\) such that no two disjoint subsets of \(F\) have the same union. In other words, for \(F =\{ A_1,A_2,\dots, A_k\},\) there exists no two sets \(I, J\subseteq [k]\) with \(I\cap J =\emptyset\) and \(\bigcup_{i\in I}A_i = \bigcup_{j\in J} A_j\). Determine the maximum possible size of \(F\).

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Solution: 2021-20 A circle of perfect squares

Say a natural number \(n\) is a cyclically perfect if one can arrange the numbers from 1 to \(n\) on the circle without a repeat so that the sum of any two consecutive numbers is a perfect square. Show that 32 is the smallest cyclically perfect number. Find the second smallest cyclically perfect number.

The best solution was submitted by 전해구 (기계공학과 졸업생, +4). Congratulations!

Here is the best solution of problem 2021-20.

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Solution: 2021-19 The answer is zero

Suppose that \( a_1 + a_2 + \dots + a_n =0 \) for real numbers \( a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n \) and \( n \geq 2\). Set \( a_{n+i}=a_i \) for \( i=1, 2, \dots \). Prove that
\[
\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{1}{a_i (a_i+a_{i+1}) (a_i+a_{i+1}+a_{i+2}) \dots (a_i+a_{i+1}+\dots+a_{i+n-2})} =0
\]
if the denominators are nonzero.

The best solution was submitted by 이도현 (수리과학과 2018학번, +4). Congratulations!

Here is the best solution of problem 2021-19.

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2021-20 A circle of perfect squares

Say a natural number \(n\) is a cyclically perfect if one can arrange the numbers from 1 to \(n\) on the circle without a repeat so that the sum of any two consecutive numbers is a perfect square. Show that 32 is the smallest cyclically perfect number. Find the second smallest cyclically perfect number.

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