Find all field automorphisms of the field of real numbers \( \mathbb{R} \). (A field automorphism of a field \( F \) is a bijective map \( \sigma : F \to F \) that preserves all of \( F \)’s algebraic properties.)

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Find all field automorphisms of the field of real numbers \( \mathbb{R} \). (A field automorphism of a field \( F \) is a bijective map \( \sigma : F \to F \) that preserves all of \( F \)’s algebraic properties.)

Let \( f(z) = z + e^{-z} \). Prove that, for any real number \( \lambda > 1 \), there exists a unique \( w \in H = \{ z \in \mathbb{C} : \text{Re } z > 0 \} \) such that \( f(w) = \lambda \).

Let \( A, B, C = A+B \) be \( N \times N \) Hermitian matrices. Let \( \alpha_1 \geq \cdots \geq \alpha_N \), \( \beta_1 \geq \cdots \geq \beta_N \), \( \gamma_1 \geq \cdots \geq \gamma_N \) be the eigenvalues of \( A, B, C \), respectively. For any \( 1 \leq i, j \leq N \) with \( i+j -1 \leq N \), prove that

\[ \gamma_{i+j-1} \leq \alpha_i + \beta_j \]

The best solution was submitted by 진우영. Congratulations!

Similar solutions are submitted by 김호진(+3), 박민재(+3), 박훈민(+3), 정성진(+3). Thank you for your participation.

Let \( A, B, C = A+B \) be \( N \times N \) Hermitian matrices. Let \( \alpha_1 \geq \cdots \geq \alpha_N \), \( \beta_1 \geq \cdots \geq \beta_N \), \( \gamma_1 \geq \cdots \geq \gamma_N \) be the eigenvalues of \( A, B, C \), respectively. For any \( 1 \leq i, j \leq N \) with \( i+j -1 \leq N \), prove that

\[ \gamma_{i+j-1} \leq \alpha_i + \beta_j \]

Suppose that a function \( f:[0, 1] \to (0, \infty) \) satisfies that

\[ \int_0^1 f(x) dx = 1. \]

Prove the following inequality.

\[ \left( \int_0^1 |f(x)-1| dx \right)^2 \leq 2 \int_0^1 f(x) \log f(x) dx. \]

The best solution was submitted by 정성진. Congratulations!

Similar solutions are submitted by 박민재(+3), 진우영(+3). Thank you for your participation.

Suppose that a function \( f:[0, 1] \to (0, \infty) \) satisfies that

\[ \int_0^1 f(x) dx = 1. \]

Prove the following inequality.

\[ \left( \int_0^1 |f(x)-1| dx \right)^2 \leq 2 \int_0^1 f(x) \log f(x) dx. \]

Let \( R \) be a ring of characteristic zero. Assume further that \( na \neq 0 \) for a positive integer \( n \) and \( a \in R \) unless \( a = 0 \). Suppose that \( e, f, g \in R \) are idempotent (with respect to the multiplication) and satisfy \( e + f + g = 0 \). Show that \( e = f = g = 0 \). (An element \( a \) is idempotent if \( a^2 = a \). )

The best solution was submitted by 박훈민. Congratulations!

Similar solutions are submitted by 김동현(+3), 김호진(+3), 도수일(+3), 박민재(+3), 정성진(+3), 진우영(+3). Thank you for your participation.

Remark: Special thanks to 김동현, who first reported that the condition `characteristic zero’ is insufficient for the problem.

Please notice that one more assumption is added in Problem 2013-18. (Due to a mistake) I apologize for the confusion and inconvenience.

Let \( R \) be a ring of characteristic zero. Assume further that \( na \neq 0 \) for a positive integer \( n \) and \( a \in R \) unless \( a = 0 \). Suppose that \( e, f, g \in R \) are idempotent (with respect to the multiplication) and satisfy \( e + f + g = 0 \). Show that \( e = f = g = 0 \). (An element \( a \) is idempotent if \( a^2 = a \). )