# Solution: 2020-16 A convex function of matrices

Let $$A$$ be an $$n \times n$$ Hermitian matrix and $$\lambda_1 (A) \geq \lambda_2 (A) \geq \dots \geq \lambda_n (A)$$ the eigenvalues of $$A$$. Prove that for any $$1 \leq k \leq n$$
$A \mapsto \lambda_1 (A) + \lambda_2 (A) + \dots + \lambda_k (A)$
is a convex function.

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2020-16.

Other solutions were submitted by 길현준 (수리과학과 2018학번, +3), 이준호 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3).

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# Solution: 2020-14 Connecting dots probabilistically

Say there are n points. For each pair of points, we add an edge with probability 1/3. Let $$P_n$$ be the probability of the resulting graph to be connected (meaning any two vertices can be joined by an edge path). What can you say about the limit of $$P_n$$ as n tends to infinity?

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2020-14.

Other solutions were submitted by 강한필 (전산학부 2016학번, +3), 김건우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 이준호 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 김유일 (2020학번, +3).

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# Solution: 2020-12 Draws on a chess tournament

There are $$n$$ people participating to a chess tournament and every two players play exactly one game against each other. The winner receives $$1$$ point and the loser gets $$0$$ point and if the game is a draw, each player receives $$0.5$$ points. Prove that if at least $$3/4$$ of the games are draws, then there are two players with the same total scores.

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2020-12.

Another solution was submitted by 고성훈 (수리과학과 2018학번, +3).

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# Solution: 2020-11 Free group of rank 2

Show that there is a subgroup of a free group of ran 2 that is not finitely generated.

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2020-11.

Other solutions were submitted by 조한슬 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 최백규(생명과학과 대학원, +2).

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# Solution: 2019-19 Balancing consecutive squares

Find all integers $$n$$ such that the following holds:

There exists a set of $$2n$$ consecutive squares $$S = \{ (m+1)^2, (m+2)^2, \dots, (m+2n)^2 \}$$ ($$m$$ is a nonnegative integer) such that $$S = A \cup B$$ for some $$A$$ and $$B$$ with $$|A| = |B| = n$$ and the sum of elements in $$A$$ is equal to the sum of elements in $$B$$.

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-19.

An incorrect solution was submitted.

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# Solution: 2019-15 Singular matrix

Let $$A, B$$ be $$n \times n$$ Hermitian matrices. Find all positive integer $$n$$ such that the following statement holds:

“If $$AB – BA$$ is singular, then $$A$$ and $$B$$ have a common eigenvector.”

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-14.

A similar solution was submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3). Late solutions are not graded.

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# Solution: 2019-07 An inequality

Suppose that $$f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$$ is differentiable and $$\max_{ x \in \mathbb{R}} |f(x)| = M < \infty$$. Prove that $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} (|f'|^2 + |f|^2) \geq 2M^2.$

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-07.

Other solutions were submitted by 고성훈 (2018학번, +3), 길현준 (2018학번, +3), 김기택 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 김민서 (2019학번, +3), 김태균 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 박재원 (2019학번, +3), 오윤석 (2019학번, +3), 윤영환 (한양대학교, +3), 이본우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 이원용 (2019학번, +3), 이정환 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 정의현 (수리과학과 대학원생, +3), 최백규 (생명과학과 2016학번, +3).

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# Solution: 2019-04 Food distribution at a dinner party

Ten mathematicians sit at a round table. Each has a certain amount of food. At each full minute, every mathematician divides his share of food into two equal parts and hands it out to the two people seated closest to him in counter-clockwise direction. How will the food be distributed at the end of a long evening? Does the answer change if instead every mathematician shares his food with the two people sitting immediately next to him?

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-04.

Other solutions were submitted by 고성훈 (2018학번, +3), 길현준 (2018학번, +3), 김기수 (수리과학과 2018학번), 김기현 (수리과학과 대학원생), 김민서 (2019학번, +3), 김태균 (수리과학과 2016학번), 이본우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 이원영 (2019학번), 이정환 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 이종서 (2019학번), 조재형 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 최백규 (생명과학과 2016학번, +3). Late solutions are not graded.

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# Solution: 2019-03 Simple spectrum

Suppose that $$T$$ is an $$N \times N$$ matrix
$T = \begin{pmatrix} a_1 & b_1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ b_1 & a_2 & b_2 & \ddots & \vdots \\ 0 & b_2 & a_3 & \ddots & 0 \\ \vdots & \ddots & \ddots & \ddots & b_{N-1} \\ 0 & \cdots & 0 & b_{N-1} & a_N \end{pmatrix}$
with $$b_i > 0$$ for $$i =1, 2, \dots, N-1$$. Prove that $$T$$ has $$N$$ distinct eigenvalues.

The best solution was submitted by 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2019-03.

Other solutions were submitted by 고성훈 (2018학번, +3), 길현준 (2018학번, +3), 김기수 (수리과학과 2018학번), 김민서 (2019학번, +3), 박현영 (전기및전자공학부 2016학번, +3), 이본우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 이상윤 (UCLA, +3), 이정환 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 조재형 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 최백규 (생명과학과 2016학번, +3). Late solutions are not graded.

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# Solution: 2018-21 AM-GM inequality

Does there exist a (possibly $$n$$-dependent) constant $$C$$ such that
$\frac{C}{a_n} \sum_{1 \leq i < j \leq n} (a_i-a_j)^2 \leq \frac{a_1+ \dots + a_n}{n} – \sqrt[n]{a_1 \dots a_n} \leq \frac{C}{a_1} \sum_{1 \leq i < j \leq n} (a_i-a_j)^2$
for any $$0 < a_1 \leq a_2 \leq \dots \leq a_n$$?

The best solution was submitted by Jiseok Chae (채지석, 수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2018-21.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3),
이본우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +2). One incorrect submission was received.

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