2018-11 Fallacy

On a math exam, there was a question that asked for the largest angle of the triangle with sidelengths \(21\), \(41\), and \(50\). A student obtained the correct answer as follows:

Let \(x\) be the largest angle. Then,
\[
\sin x = \frac{50}{41} = 1 + \frac{9}{41}.
\]
Since \( \sin 90^{\circ} = 1 \) and \( \sin 12^{\circ} 40′ 49” = 9/41 \), the angle \( x = 90^{\circ} + 12^{\circ} 40′ 49” = 102^{\circ} 40′ 49”\).

Find the triangle with the smallest area with integer sidelengths and possessing this property (that the wrong argument as above gives the correct answer).

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Solution: 2018-08 Large LCM

Let \(a_1\), \(a_2\), \(\ldots\), \(a_m\) be distinct positive integers. Prove that if \(m>2\sqrt{N}\), then there exist \(i\), \(j\) such that the least common multiple of \(a_i\) and \(a_j\) is greater than \(N\).

The best solution was submitted by Bonwoo Lee (이본우, 수리과학과 2017학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2018-08.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 이종원 (수리과학과 2014학번, +3), 김태균 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 한준호 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 이재우 (함양고등학교 3학년, +3).

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Solution: 2018-07 A tridiagonal matrix

Let \( S \) be an \( (n+1) \times (n+1) \) matrix defined by
\[
S_{ij} = \begin{cases}
(n+1)-i & \text{ if } j=i+1, \\
i-1 & \text{ if } j=i-1, \\
0 & \text{ otherwise. }
\end{cases}
\]
Find all eigenvalues of \( S \).

The best solution was submitted by Lee, Jongwon (이종원, 수리과학과 2014학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2018-07.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 한준호 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), Hitesh Kumar (Imperial College London, +2), 고성훈 (2018학번, +2).

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Solution: 2018-06 Product of diagonals

Let \(A_1,A_2,A_3,\ldots,A_n\) be the vertices of a regular \(n\)-gon on the unit circle. Evaluate \(\prod_{i=2}^n A_1A_i\). (Here, \(A_1A_i\) denotes the length of the line segment.)

The best solution was submitted by Taegyun Kim (김태균, 수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2018-06.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 권홍 (중앙대 물리학과, +3), 고성훈 (2018학번, +3), 김건우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 이본우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 이종원 (수리과학과 2014학번, +3), 채지석 (수리과학과 2016학번, +3), 최백규 (생명과학과 2016학번, +3), 하석민 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 한준호 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3).

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Solution: 2018-05 Roulette

A gambler is playing roulette and betting $1 on black each time. The probability of winning $1 is 18/38, and the probability of losing $1 is 20/38. Find the probability that starting with $20 the player reaches $40 before losing the money.

The best solution was submitted by Jiseok Chae (채지석, 수리과학과 2016학번). Congratulations!

Here is his solution of problem 2018-05.

Alternative solutions were submitted by 고성훈 (2018학번, +3), 김건우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +3), 이종원 (수리과학과 2014학번, +3), 한준호 (수리과학과 2015학번, +3), 문정욱 (2018학번, +3), 이현우 (전산학부 대학원생, +3), 임동현 (전산학부 대학원생, +3), 이본우 (수리과학과 2017학번, +2).

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