# Department Seminars & Colloquia

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Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)
Discrete Mathematics
Raul Lopes (CNRS, LAMSADE, Paris, France)
Temporal Menger and related problems

Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)

Discrete Mathematics

A temporal graph is a graph whose edges are available only at specific times. In this scenario, the only valid walks are the ones traversing adjacent edges respecting their availability, i.e. sequence of adjacent edges whose appearing times are non-decreasing.
Given a graph G and vertices s and t of G, Menger’s Theorem states that the maximum number of (internally) vertex disjoint s,t-paths is equal to the minimum size of a subset X for which G-X contains no s,t-path. This is a classical result in Graph Theory, taught in most basic Graph Theory courses, and it holds also when G is directed and when edge disjoint paths and edge cuts are considered instead. A direct translation of Menger’s Theorem to the temporal context has been known not to hold since an example was shown in the seminal paper by Kempe, Kleinberg and Kumar (STOC’00). In this talk, an overview of possible temporal versions of Menger’s Theorem will be discussed, as well as the complexity of the related problems.

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Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)
Discrete Mathematics
Jun Gao (IBS Extremal Combinatorics and Probability Group)
Number of (k-1)-cliques in k-critical graph

Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)

Discrete Mathematics

We prove that for $n>k\geq 3$, if $G$ is an $n$-vertex graph with chromatic number $k$ but any its proper subgraph has smaller chromatic number, then $G$ contains at most $n-k+3$ copies of cliques of size $k-1$. This answers a problem of Abbott and Zhou and provides a tight bound on a conjecture of Gallai.
This is joint work with Jie Ma.

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Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)
Discrete Mathematics
Sebastian Wiederrecht (IBS Discrete Mathematics Group)
Killing a vortex

Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)

Discrete Mathematics

The Structural Theorem of the Graph Minors series of Robertson and Seymour asserts that, for every $t\in\mathbb{N},$ there exists some constant $c_{t}$ such that every $K_{t}$-minor-free graph admits a tree decomposition whose torsos can be transformed, by the removal of at most $c_{t}$ vertices, to graphs that can be seen as the union of some graph that is embeddable to some surface of Euler genus at most $c_{t}$ and "at most $c_{t}$ vortices of depth $c_{t}$". Our main combinatorial result is a "vortex-free" refinement of the above structural theorem as follows: we identify a (parameterized) graph $H_{t}$, called shallow vortex grid, and we prove that if in the above structural theorem we replace $K_{t}$ by $H_{t},$ then the resulting decomposition becomes "vortex-free". Up to now, the most general classes of graphs admitting such a result were either bounded Euler genus graphs or the so called single-crossing minor-free graphs. Our result is tight in the sense that, whenever we minor-exclude a graph that is not a minor of some $H_{t},$ the appearance of vortices is unavoidable. Using the above decomposition theorem, we design an algorithm that, given an $H_{t}$-minor-free graph $G$, computes the generating function of all perfect matchings of $G$ in polynomial time. This algorithm yields, on $H_{t}$-minor-free graphs, polynomial algorithms for computational problems such as the {dimer problem, the exact matching problem}, and the computation of the permanent. Our results, combined with known complexity results, imply a complete characterization of minor-closed graphs classes where the number of perfect matchings is polynomially computable: They are exactly those graph classes that do not contain every $H_{t}$ as a minor. This provides a sharp complexity dichotomy for the problem of counting perfect matchings in minor-closed classes.
This is joint work with Dimitrios M. Thilikos.

Over recent years, data science and machine learning have been the center of attention in both the scientific community and the general public. Closely tied to the ‘AI-hype’, these fields are enjoying expanding scientific influence as well as a booming job market. In this talk, I will first discuss why mathematical knowledge is important for becoming a good machine learner and/or data scientist, by covering various topics in modern deep learning research. I will then introduce my recent efforts in utilizing various deep learning methods for statistical analysis of mathematical simulations and observational data, including surrogate modeling, parameter estimation, and long-term trend reconstruction. Various scientific application examples will be discussed, including ocean diffusivity estimation, WRF-hydro calibration, AMOC reconstruction, and SIR calibration.

In this talk, I will mostly discuss the singularity formation of Burgers equation. It is well-known that, when the initial data has negative gradient at some point, the solutions blow up in a finite time. We shall study the properties of the blow-up profile of Burgers equation by introducing the self-similar variables and the modulations, which can be used to study the blow-up for general nonlinear hyperbolic systems. If time permits, I will also discuss the singularity formation for the 1D compressible Euler equations and the related open questions.

In this talk, we present a Weisfielier-Leman Isomorphism test algorithm of featured graphs and how it can be used to extract representing features of nodes or entire graphs. This leads to a message passing framework of Aggregate-Combine of node-features which is one of the fundamental procedures to currently uesd graph neural networks. We proceed by showing various basic examples arised in real-world non-standard datasets like social network, knowledge graph and chemical compounds.

Various plasma phenomena will be discussed using a fundamentalfluid model for plasmas, called the Euler-Poisson system. These include plasma sheaths and plasma soliton. First we will briefly introduce recent results on the stability of plasma sheath solutions, and the quasi-neutral limit of the Euler-Poisson system in the presence of plasma sheaths. Another example of ourinterest is plasma solitary waves, for which we discuss existence, stability, and the time-asymptotic behavior. To study the nonlinear stability of solitary waves, the global existence of smooth solutions must be established, which is completelyopen. As a negative answer for global existence, we look into the finite-time blow-up results for the Euler-Poisson system, and discuss the related open questions.

Abstract: Let S:=S(a_{1}, ..., a_{n}) \subset P^{n} be a smooth rational normal n-fold scroll. Then the dimension of the projective automophism group {rm Aut}(S,``VecP^ {N} ) of S is
\dim(Aut(S, P^{N})) = 2+ \frac{n(n+1)}{2}-(n+1)(N-n+1)+2 sum _{ n} ^{ j=1} ja_j + #{(i,j)|i
Host: 곽시종
Contact: 김윤옥 (5745)
To be announced
2022-08-13 17:47:33

In this talk, we propose the Landau-Lifshitz type system augmented with Chern-Simons gauge terms, which can be considered as the geometric analog of so-called the Chern-Simons-Schrodinger equations. We first derive its self-dual equations through the energy minimization so that we can provide $N$-equivariant solitons. We next deliver basic ideas of constructing $N$-equivariant solitary waves for non-self-dual cases and investigating their qualitative properties.

It has been told that deep learning is a black box. The universal approximation theorem was the key theorem which makes the stories going on. On the other hand, in the perspective of the function classes generated by deep neural network, it can be analyzed by in terms of the choice of the various activation functions. The piecewise linear functions, fourier series, wavelets and many other classes would be considered for the purpose of the tasks such as classification, prediction and generation models which heavily depend on the data sets. It might be a challenging problem for mathematicians to develop a new optimization theory depending on the various function classes.

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Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)
Discrete Mathematics
Noleen Köhler (CNRS, LAMSADE)
Testing first-order definable properties on bounded degree graphs

Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)

Discrete Mathematics

Property testers are probabilistic algorithms aiming to solve a decision problem efficiently in the context of big-data. A property tester for a property P has to decide (with high probability correctly) whether a given input graph has property P or is far from having property P while having local access to the graph. We study property testing of properties that are definable in first-order logic (FO) in the bounded-degree model. We show that any FO property that is defined by a formula with quantifier prefix ∃*∀* is testable, while there exists an FO property that is expressible by a formula with quantifier prefix ∀*∃* that is not testable. In the dense graph model, a similar picture is long known (Alon, Fischer, Krivelevich, Szegedy, Combinatorica 2000), despite the very different nature of the two models. In particular, we obtain our lower bound by a first-order formula that defines a class of bounded-degree expanders, based on zig-zag products of graphs.
This is joint work with Isolde Adler and Pan Peng.

Global wellposedness and asymptotic stability of the Boltzmann equation with specular reflection boundary condition in 3D non-convex domain is an outstanding open problem in kinetic theory. Motivated by Guo’s L^2-L^\infty theory, the problem was completely solved for general C^3 domain, but it is still widely open for general non-convex domains. The problem was solved in cylindrical domain with analytic non-convex cross section. Generalizing previous work, we study the problem in general solid torus, a solid torus with general analytic convex cross-section. This is the first results for the domain which contains essentially 3D non-convex structure. This is a joint work with Chanwoo Kim and Gyeonghun Ko.

The past decade has witnessed a great advancement on the Tate conjecture for varieties with Hodge number $h^{2,0} = 1$. Charles, Madapusi-Pera and Maulik completely settled the conjecture for K3 surfaces over finite fields, and Moonen proved the Mumford-Tate (and hence also Tate) conjecture for more or less arbitrary $h^{2,0} = 1$ varieties in characteristic $0$.
In this talk, I will explain that the Tate conjecture is true for mod $p$ reductions of complex projective $h^{2,0} = 1$ varieties when $p \gg 0$, under a mild assumption on moduli. By refining this general result, we prove that in characteristic $p \geq 5$ the BSD conjecture holds for a height $1$ elliptic curve $E$ over a function field of genus 1, as long as $E$ is subject to the generic condition that all singular fibers in its minimal compactification are irreducible. We also prove the Tate conjecture over finite fields for a class of surfaces of general type and a class of Fano varieties. The overall philosophy is that the connection between the Tate conjecture over finite fields and the Lefschetz $(1,1)$-theorem over $C$ is very robust for $h^{2,0} = 1$ varieties, and works well beyond the hyperk\”{a}hler world.
This is based on joint work with Paul Hamacher and Xiaolei Zhao.

Please contact Wansu Kim at for Zoom meeting info or any inquiry.

Please contact Wansu Kim at for Zoom meeting info or any inquiry.

Please contact Wansu Kim at for Zoom meeting info or any inquiry.

(학사과정 학생 개별연구 결과 발표 세미나) Čech cohomology is the direct limit of cohomology taken from the cochain complex obtained by an open cover and a sheaf. In this talk we will derive some important results about Riemann surfaces such as Riemann-Roch theorem and Serre Duality, regarding low level Čech cohomologies. We will also discuss some basic structure and properties of Riemann surfaces using these results, focusing on genus and the embeddings.

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Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)
Discrete Mathematics
Eun Jung Kim (CNRS, LAMSADE)
Directed flow-augmentation

Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)

Discrete Mathematics

We show a flow-augmentation algorithm in directed graphs: There exists a polynomial-time algorithm that, given a directed graph G, two integers $s,t\in V(G)$, and an integer $k$, adds (randomly) to $G$ a number of arcs such that for every minimal st-cut $Z$ in $G$ of size at most $k$, with probability $2^{−\operatorname{poly}(k)}$ the set $Z$ becomes a minimum $st$-cut in the resulting graph.
The directed flow-augmentation tool allows us to prove fixed-parameter tractability of a number of problems parameterized by the cardinality of the deletion set, whose parameterized complexity status was repeatedly posed as open problems:
(1) Chain SAT, defined by Chitnis, Egri, and Marx [ESA'13, Algorithmica'17],
(2) a number of weighted variants of classic directed cut problems, such as Weighted st-Cut, Weighted Directed Feedback Vertex Set, or Weighted Almost 2-SAT.
By proving that Chain SAT is FPT, we confirm a conjecture of Chitnis, Egri, and Marx that, for any graph H, if the List H-Coloring problem is polynomial-time solvable, then the corresponding vertex-deletion problem is fixed-parameter tractable.
Joint work with Stefan Kratsch, Marcin Pilipczuk, Magnus Wahlström.

For a given stable subalgebra of the formal power series ring, its Laurent extension, or others, we define an operator algebra over the subalgebra. One of the important operator algebras is the Weyl algebra or its generalization. We define generalized radical Weyl algebras (GRWA) and define the generalized radical Weyl algebra modules, we prove that the algebras and modules are simple. An automorphism of the GRWA define a twisted simple module as well. Since GRWA is an associative algebra, it has an ${\Bbb F}$-subalgebra which is a Lie algebra with respect to the commutator and we show that the Lie algebra is simple. We consider some other generalized Weyl algebra and its descended consequences as well.

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Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)
Discrete Mathematics
Seunghun Lee (Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
Inscribable order types

Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)

Discrete Mathematics

We call an order type inscribable if it is realized by a point configuration where all extreme points are all on a circle. In this talk, we investigate inscribability of order types. We first show that every simple order type with at most 2 interior points is inscribable, and that the number of such order types is $\Theta(\frac{4^n}{n^{3/2}})$. We further construct an infinite family of minimally uninscribable order types. The proof of uninscribability mainly uses Möbius transformations. We also suggest open problems around inscribability. This is a joint work with Michael Gene Dobbins.