# 학과 세미나 및 콜로퀴엄

구글 Calendar나 iPhone 등에서 구독하면 세미나 시작 전에 알림을 받을 수 있습니다.

The syzygies of a curve are the algebraic relation amongst the equation defining it. They are an algebraic concept but they have surprising applications to geometry. For example, the Green-Lazarsfeld secant conjecture predicts that the syzygies of a curve of sufficiently high degree are controlled by its special secants. We prove this conjecture for all curves of Clifford index at least two and not bielliptic and for all line bundles of a certain degree. Our proof is based on a classic result of Martens and Mumford on Brill-Noether varieties and on a simple vanishing criterion that comes from the interpretation of syzygies through symmetric products of curves.

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B378 Seminar room, IBS
수리생물학
Dongju Lim (KAIST)
Mobile footprinting: linking individual distinctiveness in mobility patterns to mood, sleep, and brain functional connectivity

B378 Seminar room, IBS

수리생물학

Mapping individual differences in behavior is fundamental to personalized neuroscience, but quantifying complex behavior in real world settings remains a challenge. While mobility patterns captured by smartphones have increasingly been linked to a range of psychiatric symptoms, existing research has not specifically examined whether individuals have person-specific mobility patterns. We collected over 3000 days of mobility data from a sample of 41 adolescents and young adults (age 17–30 years, 28 female) with affective instability. We extracted summary mobility metrics from GPS and accelerometer data and used their covariance structures to identify individuals and calculated the individual identification accuracy—i.e., their “footprint distinctiveness”. We found that statistical patterns of smartphone-based mobility features represented unique “footprints” that allow individual identification (p < 0.001). Critically, mobility footprints exhibited varying levels of person-specific distinctiveness (4–99%), which was associated with age and sex. Furthermore, reduced individual footprint distinctiveness was associated with instability in affect (p < 0.05) and circadian patterns (p < 0.05) as measured by environmental momentary assessment. Finally, brain functional connectivity, especially those in the somatomotor network, was linked to individual differences in mobility patterns (p < 0.05). Together, these results suggest that real-world mobility patterns may provide individual-specific signatures relevant for studies of development, sleep, and psychopathology.

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Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)
이산수학
Raphael Steiner (ETH Zürich)
Strengthening Hadwiger’s conjecture for 4- and 5-chromatic graphs

Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)

이산수학

Hadwiger's famous coloring conjecture states that every t-chromatic graph contains a $K_t$-minor. Holroyd [Bull. London Math. Soc. 29, (1997), pp. 139-144] conjectured the following strengthening of Hadwiger's conjecture: If G is a t-chromatic graph and S⊆V(G) takes all colors in every t-coloring of G, then G contains a $K_t$-minor rooted at S. We prove this conjecture in the first open case of t=4. Notably, our result also directly implies a stronger version of Hadwiger's conjecture for 5-chromatic graphs as follows: Every 5-chromatic graph contains a $K_5$-minor with a singleton branch-set. In fact, in a 5-vertex-critical graph we may specify the singleton branch-set to be any vertex of the graph. Joint work with Anders Martinsson (ETH).

In the context of science, the well-known adage “a picture is worth a thousand words” might well be “a model is worth a thousand datasets.” In this manuscript we introduce the SciML software ecosystem as a tool for mixing the information of physical laws and scientific models with data-driven machine learning approaches. We describe a mathematical object, which we denote universal differential equations (UDEs), as the unifying framework connecting the ecosystem. We show how a wide variety of applications, from automatically discovering biological mechanisms to solving high-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, can be phrased and efficiently handled through the UDE formalism and its tooling. We demonstrate the generality of the software tooling to handle stochasticity, delays, and implicit constraints. This funnels the wide variety of SciML applications into a core set of training mechanisms which are highly optimized, stabilized for stiff equations, and compatible with distributed parallelism and GPU accelerators.

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Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)
이산수학
Meike Hatzel (Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원))
Fixed-Parameter Tractability of Directed Multicut with Three Terminal Pairs Parametrised by the Size of the Cutset: Twin-Width Meets Flow-Augmentation

Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)

이산수학

We show fixed-parameter tractability of the Directed Multicut problem with three terminal pairs (with a randomized algorithm). This problem, given a directed graph $G$, pairs of vertices (called terminals) $(s_1,t_1)$, $(s_2,t_2)$, and $(s_3,t_3)$, and an integer $k$, asks to find a set of at most $k$ non-terminal vertices in $G$ that intersect all $s_1t_1$-paths, all $s_2t_2$-paths, and all $s_3t_3$-paths. The parameterized complexity of this case has been open since Chitnis, Cygan, Hajiaghayi, and Marx proved fixed-parameter tractability of the 2-terminal-pairs case at SODA 2012, and Pilipczuk and Wahlström proved the W[1]-hardness of the 4-terminal-pairs case at SODA 2016.
On the technical side, we use two recent developments in parameterized algorithms. Using the technique of directed flow-augmentation [Kim, Kratsch, Pilipczuk, Wahlström, STOC 2022] we cast the problem as a CSP problem with few variables and constraints over a large ordered domain. We observe that this problem can be in turn encoded as an FO model-checking task over a structure consisting of a few 0-1 matrices. We look at this problem through the lenses of twin-width, a recently introduced structural parameter [Bonnet, Kim, Thomassé, Watrigant, FOCS 2020]: By a recent characterization [Bonnet, Giocanti, Ossona de Mendez, Simon, Thomassé, Toruńczyk, STOC 2022] the said FO model-checking task can be done in FPT time if the said matrices have bounded grid rank. To complete the proof, we show an irrelevant vertex rule: If any of the matrices in the said encoding has a large grid minor, a vertex corresponding to the "middle" box in the grid minor can be proclaimed irrelevant — not contained in the sought solution — and thus reduced.

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Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)
이산수학
Stijn Cambie (IBS 극단조합및확률그룹)
Recent progress on the Union-closed conjecture and related

Room B332, IBS (기초과학연구원)

이산수학

We give a summary on the work of the last months related to Frankl's Union-Closed conjecture and its offsprings. The initial conjecture is stated as a theorem in extremal set theory; when a family F is union-closed (the union of sets of F is itself a set of $\mathcal F$), then $\mathcal F$ contains an (abundant) element that belongs to at least half of the sets. Meanwhile, there are many related versions of the conjecture due to Frankl. For example, graph theorists may prefer the equivalent statement that every bipartite graph has a vertex that belongs to no more than half of the maximal independent sets. While even proving the ε-Union-Closed Sets Conjecture was out of reach, Poonen and Cui & Hu conjectured already stronger forms.
At the end of last year, progress was made on many of these conjectures. Gilmer proved the ε-Union-Closed Sets Conjecture using an elegant entropy-based method which was sharpened by many others. Despite a sharp approximate form of the union-closed conjecture as stated by Chase and Lovett, a further improvement was possible. In a different direction, Kabela, Polak and Teska constructed union-closed family sets with large sets and few abundant elements.
This talk will keep the audience up-to-date and give them insight in the main ideas.
People who would like more details, can join the Ecopro-reading session on the 7th of March (10 o'clock, B332) as well. Here we go deeper in the core of the proofs and discuss possible directions for the full resolution.

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B378 Seminar room, IBS
수리생물학
Seho Park (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology)
Dynamical information enables inference of gene regulation at single-cell scale

B378 Seminar room, IBS

수리생물학

Cellular dynamics and emerging biological function are governed by patterns of gene expression arising from networks of interacting genes. Inferring these interactions from data is a notoriously difficult inverse problem that is central to systems biology. The majority of existing network inference methods work at the population level and construct a static representations of gene regulatory networks; they do not naturally allow for inference of differential regulation across a heterogeneous cell population. Building upon recent dynamical inference methods that model single cell dynamics using Markov processes, we propose locaTE, an information-theoretic approach which employs a localised transfer entropy to infer cell-specific, causal gene regulatory networks. LocaTE uses high-resolution estimates of dynamics and geometry of the cellular gene expression manifold to inform inference of regulatory interactions. We find that this approach is generally superior to using static inference methods, often by a significant margin. We demonstrate that factor analysis can give detailed insights into the inferred cell-specific GRNs. In application to two experimental datasets, we recover key transcription factors and regulatory interactions that drive mouse primitive endoderm formation and pancreatic development. For both simulated and experimental data, locaTE provides a powerful, efficient and scalable network inference method that allows us to distil cell-specific networks from single cell data.

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B378 Seminar room, IBS
수리생물학
Hyukpyo Hong (KAIST)
Estimating and Assessing Differential Equation Models with Time-Course Data

B378 Seminar room, IBS

수리생물학

Ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are widely used to describe chemical or biological processes. This article considers the estimation and assessment of such models on the basis of time-course data. Due to experimental limitations, time-course data are often noisy and some components of the system may not be observed. Furthermore, the computational demands of numerical integration have hindered the widespread adoption of time-course analysis using ODEs. To address these challenges, we explore the efficacy of the recently developed MAGI (MAnifold-constrained Gaussian process Inference) method for ODE inference. First, via a range of examples we show that MAGI is capable of inferring the parameters and system trajectories, including unobserved components, with appropriate uncertainty quantification. Second, we illustrate how MAGI can be used to assess and select different ODE models with time-course data based on MAGI’s efficient computation of model predictions. Overall, we believe MAGI is a useful method for the analysis of time-course data in the context of ODE models, which bypasses the need for any numerical integration.